HistoryUrban public transport existed in the first half of the 19th century. Omnibus (translated from Latin - "for all") - a many horse-drawn carriage with the imperials - open space and the seats upstairs on the roof of the carriage. Over time, improved chassis horse-drawn carriages - were improved suspension, brakes, swivel mechanisms. Conventional wheel replaced with flanged wheels (protrusion on the edge of the rim, preventing the wheels from the rail at once), and the efforts of horse-drawn omnibus rode the rails urban railways - so was born trolley. Opening of the horse-drawn railway in Russia took place in 1864 in St. Petersburg. In Minsk trolley came almost three decades later. And the first shuttle passengers into the city began to be implemented in 1887.
В By 1897, Minsk had about 91 thousand inhabitants, and its territory was increased compared with the 60-ties of the 19th century, 14 times. Need to Minsk in the movement is growing.
The construction of the Minsk railway transport was started only in 1890. The opening of "konnozhelezki" took place in Minsk May 10, 1892.
In the late 19th century in Minsk two station - Brest - Moscow-Brest railway (on the site of the present railroad station) and Vilnius - Libavo-Romenskii (at the current Station Square). From stations and tram routes began.
Tram services in 1910, used the residents of 24 cities of the Russian Empire. This number except Minsk and entered another Belarusian city of Mogilev.
Since March 1928 the Minsk trolley was already past of the city. Minsk longer than other cities to "keep" competitive.
In autumn 1924, in many cities across the country opened up bus traffic. The park consisted of foreign-brand cars, "Leyland", "Reno", "MAN". In Minsk, the bus started to deliver the first passengers October 23, 1924. November 7 is the same event occurred in Gomel Gomel line - Novobelitsa.
May 22, 1925 to the voyage on the route Minsk - Cherven first intercity passenger and postal bus.
The first attempt to put a tram in Minsk was made in 1898.
October 13, 1929 in Minsk was opened tram service. From the earliest days trams transported daily by thousands of 18-19 passengers. The tram was used extensively not only for passengers, but also for freight. In the five years since the launch rail, the city was already seven tram lines, the total length of the path reached 33 kilometers. By the end of 1934, the park had 56 cars. Per capita of the city had 280 visits per year (by the time the population of Minsk has reached 189,000 people). A new type of passenger transport - taxi. It was organized by tram management. In 1937, on city routes plied already 48 trains. In 1939, the total length of operational ways of Minsk in a single-track streetcar year was 36.8 kilometers, the park consisted of 70 carriages, transported 50 million paying passengers.During World War II tram farm was destroyed and ruined. Barn was destroyed, survived only a few cars. The period from 1944 to mid-1947 - the most difficult to Minsk tram. It was necessary not only from the ground to lift economy, to provide depot materials, spare parts, but also to train personnel, people create basic living conditions. Resumption of tram traffic in Minsk still actively contributed to Moscow and Leningrad.
Almost the entire bus fleet of rolling stock Belgostransa was destroyed by German occupiers. In 1946, the park consists of 17 buses and four captured ZIS-154.
In February 1947, established the Minsk bus and taxi fleet. Buses then there were a little over forty. The staff of the park included 37 drivers, 18 conductors, 11 maintenance workers and 10 engineers and technicians.
Since 1948, the park began to grow with new buses brand GAS and VMS. ZIS-154 was produced at the Moscow Automobile during the 1946-1949 period. This is the first native serial city bus with metal body type wagon.
In November 1949, the Council of Ministers of the Byelorussian SSR adopted a resolution on the construction in Minsk trolleybus line.
The first trolleybus was launched in 1882 from Berlin-Spandau - a year after the opening of the tram traffic. It was an imperfect crew outdoor chaise equipped with an electric motor with chain drive to the rear wheels. Feeding the engine run from the contact network by cable, which, combining the current collection trolley kativshuyusya through wires with electrical equipment. Hence the name: the English word "troll" meant the trolley and the bare wire through which the current.
The first trolley buses were manufactured in the Soviet Union at the Moscow factories. Trolleybus system in the Soviet Union opened the day before the sixteenth anniversary of the October Revolution in 1933, in Moscow.
In August 1951, the Office of the Minsk tram sent to Leningrad TTU 26 working for the development of specialty trolleybus driver.
At the end of March 1952 Minsk management renamed the tram tram and trolleybus. September 19, 1952 the first phase of the trolleybus line from the passenger station to the Round Square has become operational. Its total length by routeing the ring was more than 6 miles away. The opening day of the voyage took 5 cars.
In 1956, the length of the tram routes of 48, and the trolley - 16 kilometers, the city had 122 tram cars, and 39 trolleybuses. Tram on all indicators surpassed by the time the pre-war level.
At the beginning of 1960 in Minsk development has practically stopped the tram, tram and trolleybus conceded superiority. However, despite the reduction of the role of this mode of transport, a tram economy continued to grow in Minsk. Built a new depot for 250 cars on the roads are laid rails grooved profile of the "Phoenix", there were cast turnouts heating which is produced by electricity. Excluded from the inventory last 12 tramcars Release 1931-1932 period.
By the beginning of 1961 in Minsk there were 6 trolleybus lines. Trolleybus fleet consisted of 100 aircraft. On the eve of 1970 trolleybus line further lengthened: it was commissioned in the 15th route - from the tractor factory to the worsted mill. This allowed to carry in excess of the plan in 1969 4,344,000 passengers get 50.3 thousand rubles of above-plan profits.
In 1970, electrified in Minsk transported daily 550-600 thousand passengers. Cruised through the city more than 400 pieces of rolling stock. In order to coordinate their movements applied direct dial telephone central dispatcher with end stations. All emergency vehicles were equipped with radio equipment.
Tram and trolleybus management to early 1970's, it was a major undertaking. It worked 3,400 people, with about half that number were women.
Bus as the most mobile form of transport has always been a pioneer, opens in new routes. 1956 notes (determined) as a milestone, a new stage, from which the Minsk bus service economy began to acquire modern features. In the park received buses ZIL-127, ZIL-158, PAZ-652, LAZ-695. The company employs more than 450 cars.
Separated taxi fleet. The first bus fleet - so the company became known - were united under the roof of buses serving the intercity, commuter and intercity lines. Was eliminated multi-rate fares on public transport. Since January 1958 the cost of a ticket on the bus and trolley bus was the same.
In 1960, column, asking for intercity, reorganized in the second bus fleet. All regional centers of Belarus were connected to the bus routes to the capital of Minsk car took off for Moscow, Leningrad, Vilnius, Riga, a city of Ukraine. Stood as an independent self-supporting enterprise shuttle fleet.
In the mid-1960s in the four largest cities in the country, including in Minsk, opened a permanent representation of the Hungarian company "Mogyurt-Icarus". The appearance on the streets of Minsk "Ikarus" traffic situation in the city has changed dramatically. The main advantage of the Hungarian buses - good capacity.
In 1976 was introduced a single one-time travel voucher for two types of transport - bus and trolleybus - worth 4 cents. At the request of public transport organizations and the Council of Ministers of the Byelorussian SSR established three additional varieties of monthly bus tickets - trolley, bus - tram, trolley bus - tram.
В In 1974, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution on the construction of the Minsk metro.
Age metro amounts to more than a hundred years. The first line is laid in London in 1863. Since then, the city off-street paths in many countries around the world came to be called the underground (in French - the capital).
In the USSR, the first subway built in Moscow. It launched May 15, 1935. In Leningrad - the second city with a subway - since 1955. Minsk became the ninth.
In 1977, work began at the park Chelyuskintsev first stone was laid on the site of the future station.
Nearly 250 companies in the country participated in the construction of the Minsk metro. Depot design specially created design institute - "Minskmetroproekt." According to the architects design each station, keeping the flavor of the Belarusian must carry its own meaning, reflect certain events in the life of respubliki.V 1977, work began at the park Chelyuskintsev first stone was laid on the site of the future station.
Seven years of the first phase of the first line - 8.6 kilometers, 9 stations. The cars were prepared from Moscow and Leningrad.
В In 1984, the first train passed from the "Moscow" to "Cultural Institute" - from start to finish, put into operation the site. After two and a half years, was put into operation a new section: 1.6 kilometers of rails connected the station "Moscow" to the station "Vostok".
31 December 1991 - the first electric train with passengers went on the second line from the station "Frunze" station "Tractor Factory" - the section length of 7.1 kilometers. In 1995 he was commissioned a second plot line from the station "Frunze" station "Pushkin", length of 2.92 kilometers, in 1997 - the section of the station "Tractor Plants" station "Avtozavodskaya" length of 3.55 kilometers. In the new age of the Minsk subway came with a new section of the station "Avtozavodskaya" station "Vitebsk".
November 7, 2005 opened three new subway station of the second line - "Sports", "Kuntsevshchina" and "Rock Hill."
In 2007, the Moscow subway line extended to the station "Uruchcha", in 2012 - to the station "Petrovshchina." In 2013, the planned commissioning of another station of the Moscow Metro line "Robin."
In the barn there is a museum today Ming tramway, which consists of a small exposure, located in located in the slow-moving tram fleet car LM-49.Wagon Museum of History and labor glory of the branch "barn" was opened on 13 October 1979. Now in its exposition are several hundred different historical photographs and documents, fragments of vessels in service of tram rails tram to the XIX century and the first coat tram driver.